Understanding the specific muscles activated during a punch provides key insights into the mechanics of punching.
With that knowledge, you’ll be able to improve your technique for more speed, and efficiency and suffer fewer injuries.
When landing a punch, key muscles like the calves, quadriceps, glutes, and hips engage to generate torque and power, while the deltoids, triceps, and the Serratus Anterior—the boxer’s muscle—work together to extend the arm to complete the movement.
To learn more details about the muscles used in punching, keep reading.
Table of Contents
When you throw a well-formed punch, your power generation begins from your feet.
That involves your calves contracting to create torque from the floor.
This is like gripping the floor to create stability and begin the rest of the movement.
Power begins from the floor and travels upward, with the calves being one of the first muscles to activate.
As the kinetic chain develops and moves up your body, your quads will activate to help you lift the front leg in leading a jab or contracting to activate the power in a cross.
The quadriceps are paired with the calves to grab the torque and continue moving it up the chain.
Quads are another important piece of generating power.
Your glutes (buttocks) will contract as you step into your punches and be key in delivering your power forward.
Glutes are where a ton of power is generated as they can contract ferociously to enable energy transfer.
4. Hip flexors
The hip flexor will activate and act as a pivotal connector of energy from the lower body to the upper body.
It helps lift the leg to place the front foot forward if leading with a jab or opens up to thrust your rear hip forward (with help from your glutes) in delivering a cross for serious power.
Having healthy hip flexors is a huge deal for a boxer which can require strength but also flexibility.
The hip flexors will bring stability and balance to your punching movement.
Now, the kinetic energy can travel into the upper body as the obliques control torso rotation, transferring energy upward.
These muscles are activated when you twist to throw a punch and send the energy up to the shoulders to move the power into your arms.
You’re also involving your core abdominal muscles in this movement which continues to bring stabilization.
6. Serratus anterior
The small but powerful boxer’s muscle, serratus anterior, activates to extend your arm away from your body so that it’s straight for a punch.
This is a key punching muscle and is vital in connecting the energy to the delivery of the force.
If this muscle gets injured, which is a common issue for boxers, power efficiency can be significantly reduced.
Your deltoids activate to lift your arm, passing the energy from the torso down into the rest of the arm.
Parts of your upper back muscles are also getting involved in the movement, supporting the arm lift.
At the back of the arm, the tricep helps in arm extension and activates to tighten up and deliver strength and stability through the punch.
9. Finger extensors
The finger extensors in your forearm tighten to stabilize the wrist, protecting it while huge force is being passed through your bones and ligaments.
10. Finger flexors
Your finger flexors also tighten to close the fist and provide stability at impact.
These will protect the hands and forearms by absorbing the returning force once a connection is made.
These muscles in the palms of your hands and forearms can easily get overworked with powerful punches, so it’s a good idea to look after them with strength training and stretches.
How many muscles does it take to punch?
It takes ten major muscle groups to land a punch. But the movement also uses dozens of additional small muscles and involves the entire body.
What muscles does punching work?
Punching is going to work the Serratus Anterior, deltoids, and finger flexors the most.
With recurrent usage, these muscles get the most impact and can cause them to suffer the most injuries.
Throwing punches will also work other muscles like the calves, quads, glutes, and obliques regularly as they contract regularly but aren’t as easily affected by the impact of punches.
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